IRA owners must begin taking annual required minimum distributions (RMD) once they reach age 70½. An RMD is taxable as income for the year in which the RMD is taken. A lot of my clients dislike RMDs because they are a forced distribution – by law, an RMD must be taken after age 70½ whether or not the client wants the distribution. For these clients, the RMD unnecessarily pushes up their taxable income and consequently their income tax bill.
So what can a taxpayer do to eliminate, or at least reduce the income tax liability that comes with the RMD? Enter the qualified charitable distribution (QCD).
A QCD allows a taxpayer to transfer an RMD from an IRA directly to a qualifying charity without the taxpayer including the RMD amount in taxable income. The amount contributed to charity via the QCD (up to a limit of $100,000) may be excluded from adjusted gross income while satisfying that year’s RMD. The QCD exclusion is allowable regardless of whether the taxpayer takes a standard deduction or itemizes deductions. The QCD amount may not be taken as a charitable deduction if one itemizes. The benefit of the QCD is the exclusion of the QCD amount from adjusted gross income for the year in which the QCD is taken.
There are several important rules that apply to QCDs. First, the account from which the QCD is made must be an IRA, and the amount must be taxable funds (neither nondeductible contributions nor after-tax rollover funds may be used for the QCD). The IRA may be a traditional, inherited, or an inactive SEP or SIMPLE IRA. A taxpayer may not make a QCD from a 401(k) or other employer sponsored retirement account.
Second, the taxpayer must have reached the age of 70½ before the QCD is made. It isn’t enough that one turns age 70½ during the year. The QCD must be made after the date the taxpayer reaches age 70½.
Third, the charity receiving the QCD funds must be a qualifying 501(c)(3) organization. A QCD is not available for a contribution to a private foundation or a donor-advised fund.
Fourth, the amount of the QCD is capped at $100,000 per year per taxpayer. Thus, taxpayers who must take an RMD of more than $100,000 will still be required to include in adjusted gross income that portion of the RMD that exceeds the $100,000 QCD limit. However, if the taxpayer is married and files jointly, both spouses can make a $100,000 QCD from their separate IRAs.
Finally, the QCD must be made via direct transfer from the IRA to the charity. The check cannot be made out to the taxpayer. If the check is made payable to the taxpayer, he may not later give those funds to charity for the QCD, and the amount of the distribution must be included as income on the taxpayer’s return.
A QCD can be a powerful tool to help avoid income taxes when faced with mandatory RMDs. However, the rules governing RMDs and QCDs are many and complex. Make sure you are working with a qualified professional.
Have questions about QCDs, or RMDs in general? Contact me, I can help.